Jenis Kapasito

Ada sejumlah keluarga kapasitor yang berbeda tersedia, masing-masing memiliki fitur karakteristik yang menentukan. Beberapa keluarga bagus untuk menyimpan muatan dalam jumlah besar namun mungkin memiliki arus bocor tinggi dan toleransi buruk. Keluarga lain mungkin memiliki toleransi yang besar dan arus bocor yang rendah tetapi mungkin tidak memiliki kemampuan untuk menyimpan muatan dalam jumlah besar. Beberapa keluarga dirancang untuk menangani tegangan tinggi namun mungkin besar dan mahal. Keluarga lain mungkin tidak mampu menangani tegangan tinggi tetapi mungkin memiliki toleransi yang baik dan kinerja suhu yang baik.

Beberapa keluarga mungkin mengandung anggota yang bersifat terpolarisasi atau tidak terpolarisasi. Kapasitor terpolarisasi, tidak seperti kapasitor yang tidak terpolarisasi, dirancang khusus untuk digunakan dengan voltase dc yang fluktuatif (kapasitor yang tidak terpolarisasi dapat menangani voltase dc dan ac). Kapasitor terpolarisasi memiliki sadapan positif yang harus ditempatkan pada potensial yang lebih tinggi dalam rangkaian dan memiliki sadapan negatif yang harus ditempatkan pada potensial yang lebih rendah. Menempatkan kapasitor terpolarisasi ke arah yang salah dapat menghancurkannya. (Keterbatasan kapasitor terpolarisasi untuk digunakan dalam rangkaian fluktuasi dc diimbangi oleh kapasitansi yang sangat besar.) Kapasitor juga datang dalam bentuk tetap atau variabel. Kapasitor variabel memiliki tombol yang dapat diputar untuk menyesuaikan tingkat kapasitansi.

Kapasitor ini termasuk aluminium dan elektrolit tantalum. Mereka diproduksi oleh formasi petrokimia dari film oksida ke permukaan logam (aluminium atau tantalum). Logam di mana film oksida terbentuk berfungsi sebagai anoda atau terminal positif, film oksida bertindak sebagai dielektrik, dan cairan konduksi atau gel bertindak sebagai katoda atau terminal negatif. Kapasitor elektrolit Tantalum memiliki rasio kapasitansi per volume yang lebih besar jika dibandingkan dengan elektrolit aluminium.

Mayoritas kapasitor elektrolitik terpolarisasi. Kapasitor elektrolit, bila dibandingkan dengan kapasitor non-elektrolitik, biasanya memiliki kapasitansi lebih besar tetapi memiliki toleransi yang buruk (sebesar _100 persen untuk aluminium dan sekitar _5 hingga _20 persen untuk tantalum), stabilitas suhu yang buruk, kebocoran tinggi, dan masa pakai yang pendek. Kapasitansi berkisar dari sekitar 1 μF hingga 1 F untuk aluminium dan 0,001 hingga 1000 μF untuk tantalum, dengan rasio tegangan maksimum dari 6 hingga 450 V. Penandaan terpolarisasi (timah negatif) ++ Radial timah Keramik timah aksial Ini sangat populer tanpa kapasitor terpolarisasi kecil dan murah tetapi memiliki stabilitas suhu dan akurasi yang buruk. Ini berisi dielektrik keramik dan lapisan fenol. Ini sering digunakan untuk memotong dan menggabungkan aplikasi. Toleransi berkisar dari _5 hingga _100 persen, sedangkan kapasitansi berkisar dari 1 pF hingga 2.2 μF, dengan nilai tegangan maksimum dari 3 V hingga 6 kV.

Ini adalah kapasitor non-terpolarisasi yang sangat populer yang dapat diandalkan, murah, dan memiliki arus bocor rendah tetapi stabilitas suhu buruk. Kisaran kapasitansi dari 0,001 hingga 10 μF, dengan peringkat tegangan 50 hingga 600 V. Ini adalah perangkat yang sangat akurat dengan arus bocor yang sangat rendah. Itu dibangun dengan lapisan alternatif foil logam dan insulasi mika, ditumpuk dan dikemas. Kapasitor ini memiliki kapasitansi kecil dan sering digunakan dalam sirkuit frekuensi tinggi (misalnya, sirkuit RF). Mereka sangat stabil di bawah kondisi tegangan dan suhu variabel. Toleransi berkisar dari _0,25 hingga _5 persen. Kisaran kapasitansi dari 1 pF hingga 0,01 μF, dengan rasio tegangan maksimum dari 100 V hingga 2,5 KV.

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20 thoughts on “Jenis Kapasito

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