Simple Binary-Weighted dan R / 2R Ladder DAC

Konverter digital-ke-analog 4-bit sederhana yang dibangun dari sakelar yang dikendalikan secara digital (74HC4066), serangkaian resistor berbobot biner, dan penguat operasional. Ide dasarnya adalah membuat sirkuit penguat pembalik yang penguatannya dikendalikan dengan mengubah resistansi input Rin. 74HC4066 dan resistor bersama-sama bertindak sebagai Rin yang dikontrol secara digital yang dapat mengambil salah satu dari 16 nilai yang mungkin. (Anda dapat menganggap 74HC4066 dan kombinasi resistor sebagai sumber arus yang dikontrol secara digital. Setiap kode biner baru yang diterapkan pada input 74HC4066 menghasilkan level arus diskrit baru yang dijumlahkan oleh RF untuk memberikan level tegangan output diskrit baru.) Pilih nilai-nilai resistor skala R, R / 2, R / 4, dan R / 8 untuk memberikan nilai diskrit Rin yang berjarak sama. Untuk menemukan semua nilai yang mungkin dari Rin, kami menggunakan rumus yang disediakan. Rumus ini terlihat seperti rumus resistor paralel lama, tetapi kita harus mengecualikan resistor yang tidak dipilih oleh kode input digital – untuk itulah koefisien Koefisien A sampai D (koefisien adalah 1 atau 0, tergantung pada masukan digital).

Sekarang, untuk menemukan tegangan keluaran analog, kita cukup menggunakan Vout = -Vin (RF / Rin) – ekspresi yang digunakan untuk penguat pembalik menunjukkan apa yang kita dapatkan ketika kita mengatur Vin = -5V, R = 100 k ,, dan RF = 20 k ,, dan ambil semua kode input yang memungkinkan. DAC berbobot biner yang ditunjukkan di atas terbatas dalam resolusi (4-bit, 16 level analog). Untuk menggandakan resolusi (buat DAC 8-bit), Anda mungkin berpikir untuk menambahkan 74HC4066 dan R / 16, R / 32, R / 64, dan R / 128 resistor yang lain. Secara teori, ini berhasil; pada kenyataannya tidak. Masalah dengan pendekatan ini adalah bahwa ketika kita mencapai resistor R / 128, kita harus menemukan resistor res 0,78125-k, dengan asumsi R = 100 k .. Dengan asumsi kita dapat menemukan atau membangun jaringan resistor setara untuk R / 128, kita masih dalam masalah karena toleransi dari resistor ini akan mengacaukan segalanya. Pendekatan penskalaan skala menjadi tidak praktis ketika kita berurusan dengan resolusi lebih dari beberapa bit.

Untuk meningkatkan resolusi, kami memo jaringan skala-resistor dan menggantinya dengan jaringan tangga R / 2R-produsen DAC IC juga melakukan ini. R / 2R DAC menggunakan jaringan tangga resistor R / 2R alih-alih jaringan skala-resistor, seperti halnya pada DAC sebelumnya. Manfaat menggunakan tangga R / 2R adalah kita hanya membutuhkan dua nilai resistor, R dan 2R. Trik untuk memahami bagaimana tangga R / 2R bekerja adalah menyadari bahwa arus yang ditarik melalui salah satu saklar selalu sama, tidak peduli apakah itu dilemparkan ke atas atau dilemparkan ke bawah. Jika sebuah saklar dilemparkan ke bawah, arus akan mengalir melalui sakelar ke ground (0 V). Jika sebuah saklar dilempar ke atas, arus akan mengalir ke tanah maya yang terletak di input pembalik op amp (ingat bahwa jika input pembalik op amp diatur ke 0 V, op amp akan membuat input input 0 V, melalui umpan balik negatif). Setelah Anda menyadari bahwa arus melalui sakelar tertentu selalu konstan, Anda dapat mengetahui bahwa arus total (I) yang disuplai oleh Vref akan konstan juga. Setelah Anda mendapatkannya, Anda mengetahui fraksi apa dari arus total yang melewati masing-masing cabang dalam jaringan R / 2R menggunakan analisis rangkaian sederhana.

73 thoughts on “Simple Binary-Weighted dan R / 2R Ladder DAC

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