Spesifikasi Op Am

Rasio penolakan mode-umum (CMRR): Input ke penguat perbedaan, secara umum, berisi dua komponen: mode umum dan sinyal mode perbedaan. Tegangan sinyal mode-umum adalah rata-rata dari dua input, sedangkan sinyal mode-perbedaan adalah perbedaan antara kedua input. Idealnya, penguat hanya memengaruhi sinyal mode perbedaan. Namun, sinyal mode-umum juga diperkuat hingga tingkat tertentu. Common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), yang didefinisikan sebagai rasio kenaikan tegangan sinyal perbedaan dengan gain tegangan sinyal mode umum, memberikan indikasi seberapa baik suatu cara menolak sinyal yang diterapkan secara bersamaan untuk kedua input. Semakin besar nilai CMRR, semakin baik kinerja perangkat. Kisaran tegangan input-diferensial. Rentang tegangan yang dapat diterapkan antara terminal input tanpa memaksa untuk beroperasi di luar spesifikasinya. Jika input melampaui kisaran ini, gain berubah secara drastis.

Impedansi input diferensial: Impedansi diukur antara terminal input non-inverting dan inverting. Tegangan offset input. Secara teori, tegangan output op amp harus nol ketika kedua input bernilai nol. Pada kenyataannya, bagaimanapun, sedikit ketidakseimbangan sirkuit dalam sirkuit internal dapat menghasilkan tegangan output. Tegangan offset input adalah jumlah tegangan yang harus diterapkan ke salah satu input agar nol pada output.

Input bias saat ini: Secara teoritis, seharusnya memiliki impedansi input yang tidak terbatas dan karenanya tidak ada arus input. Pada kenyataannya, bagaimanapun, arus kecil, biasanya dalam rentang nanoamp ke picoamp, dapat ditarik oleh input. Rata-rata dari dua arus input disebut sebagai arus bias input. Arus ini dapat mengakibatkan penurunan tegangan resistor di jaringan umpan balik, jaringan bias, atau impedansi sumber, yang pada gilirannya dapat menyebabkan kesalahan pada tegangan output. Arus bias input bergantung pada sirkuit input op amp. Dengan op amp FET, arus bias input biasanya cukup kecil untuk tidak menyebabkan tegangan offset yang serius. Sebaliknya, amp bipolar dapat menyebabkan masalah. Dengan amp bipolar, resistor kompensasi sering diperlukan untuk memusatkan output. Saya akan membahas bagaimana ini dilakukan dalam satu menit.

Input offset current: Ini mewakili perbedaan arus input ke dalam dua terminal input ketika outputnya nol. Apa artinya ini? Nah, terminal input dari op amp nyata cenderung untuk menarik dalam berbagai kedalaman arus bocor, bahkan ketika tegangan yang sama diterapkan pada mereka. Hal ini terjadi karena selalu ada sedikit perbedaan dalam resistansi dalam sirkuit input untuk dua terminal yang berasal selama proses pembuatan. Oleh karena itu, jika dua terminal op amp keduanya terhubung ke tegangan input yang sama, jumlah arus input yang berbeda akan dihasilkan, menyebabkan output menjadi offset. Amp biasanya datang dengan terminal offset yang dapat ditransfer ke potensi untuk memperbaiki arus offset. Saya akan membahas bagaimana ini dilakukan dalam satu menit.

Penguatan tegangan (AV): Biasanya memiliki kenaikan tegangan 104 hingga 106 (atau 80 hingga 120 dB; 1 dB = 20 log10AV) pada dc. Namun, gain turun ke 1 pada frekuensi yang disebut frekuensi gain unity fT, biasanya dari 1 hingga 10 MHz-hasil dari keterbatasan frekuensi tinggi dalam sirkuit internal op amp. Saya akan berbicara lebih banyak tentang perilaku frekuensi tinggi dalam amp dalam satu menit.

Ayunan tegangan keluaran: Ini adalah ayunan tegangan keluaran puncak, dirujuk ke nol, yang dapat diperoleh tanpa kliping. Laju perubahan tegangan. Ini mewakili tingkat maksimum perubahan tegangan output op amp dengan waktu. Keterbatasan perubahan output dengan hasil waktu dari kapasitor kompensasi frekuensi internal atau eksternal memperlambat segalanya, yang pada gilirannya menghasilkan perubahan output tertunda dengan perubahan input (delay propagasi). Pada frekuensi tinggi, besarnya laju perubahan tegangan op amp menjadi lebih kritis. Op amp serba guna seperti 741 memiliki laju perubahan tegangan 0,5 V / μs – nilai yang sangat kecil bila dibandingkan dengan laju perubahan tegangan HA2539 berkecepatan tinggi sebesar 600 V / μs.

Arus suplai: Ini mewakili arus yang diperlukan dari catu daya untuk mengoperasikan op amp tanpa beban dan dengan tegangan keluaran nol.

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